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These changes might start early, at approximately 40 years, for both facial (Williams et al., 2009) and prosodic emotions (Paulmann et al., 2008; Mill et al., 2009; Lima and Castro, 2011), and decline may occur linearly with advancing age (see Isaacowitz et al., 2007). In particular, compared to young adults, older adults could experience difficulties recognizing fear, anger and sadness from faces but experience no deficits recognizing happy or neutral faces (see for review, Isaacowitz et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008). Face and voice expression identification in patients with emotional and behavioural changes following ventral frontal lobe damage. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00106-9 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Hugenschmidt, C. Such difficulties have been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social-behavioral deficits (i.e., autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, neurodegenerative dementia; e.g., Chaby et al., 2012; and see for review Kennedy and Adolphs, 2012; Kumfor et al., 2014) but also in normal aging, which is frequently associated with social withdrawal and loneliness (e.g., Szanto et al., 2012; Steptoe et al., 2013). Although older adults report high levels of satisfaction and better emotional stability with advancing age (Reed and Carstensen, 2012; Sims et al., 2015), they have difficulties processing some types of emotional information, which is often marked by a decline in emotion recognition (Ruffman et al., 2008; Isaacowitz and Blanchard-Fields, 2012). The recognition of disgust also seems highly preserved in older adults (e.g., Calder et al., 2003). Changes in emotion after circumscribed surgical lesions of the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. doi: 10.1093/brain/awg168 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Hornak, J., Rolls, E. Data from voices are less coherent, as difficulties have been found in older adults only for anger and sadness (Ruffman et al., 2008) or for almost all emotions (e.g., Paulmann et al., 2008). Whether you are seeking just a date, a pen pal, a casual or a serious relationship, you can meet singles in Iowa today!Iowa is known as the "The Hawkeye State" and Love And is here to bring their Christian Singles together.
Altogether, the above studies showed evidence of age-related decline of some basic emotions via unimodal visual or auditory channels.
Most past studies have identified age-related difficulties in the visual channel, particularly when participants were asked to recognize emotion from posed facial expressions (see for review, Chaby and Narme, 2009; Isaacowitz and Stanley, 2011).
These posed expressions were created to convey a single specific emotion, typically with exaggerated individual features, without any distracting or irrelevant features.
Importantly, additional analyses using the “race model” demonstrate that older adults benefited to the same extent as younger adults from the combination of facial and vocal emotional stimuli.
These results help explain some conflicting results in the literature and may clarify emotional abilities related to daily life that are partially spared among older adults.